Abstract: This analytical study focuses on the measurement of agricultural sustainability and rural livelihood by using the Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) approach in the western Maharashtra region during the period 2020-21. It is purely based on primary data, which was collected from identified 90 villages of 18 tehsils in 4 districts of western Maharashtra. The SLSI calculation covers three main domains viz. social equity, economic efficiency, and ecological security and it's different 14 indicators. The study highlighted that Satara district has the highest SLSI (0.566) which ranked 1st and Kolhapur district has the lowest SLSI (0.468) among four selected districts from western Maharashtra. Overall progress of western Maharashtra in SLSI was 0.519, which is under the medium SLSI category during the study period. Objectives: To make a detailed examination and measurement of Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) of selected districts in the western Maharashtra region of Maharashtra state. Method/Statistical Analysis: The present study is analytical and covered four selected districts of western Maharashtra Region in India to estimate the SLSI during 2020-21. The methodology has covered three main domains such as social equity, economic efficiency, and ecological security along with its different sub-indicators. It is based on both primary and secondary data. However, it mostly depends on the primary data and field observations from the sample tehsils of the study area. The sampling procedure based on the cluster sampling methods 18 out of 45 tehsils (Sangli 4 out of 10, Satara 4 out of 11, Solapur 5 out of 12, and Kolhapur 5 out of 12) from the western Maharashtra (which includes one central and other tehsils from the border in respective districts) covering 816 households from 90 identified villages through proportionate sampling method in the selected district in the western Maharashtra region of Maharashtra state. The Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) covers its three main dimensions like ecological security, economic efficiency, and social equity and its different sub-indicators. The possible proxy variables have been used to calculate the index. Findings: This study observed that Satara district has the highest SLSI i.e., 0.566, ranked 1st, and Kolhapur district has the lowest SLSI i.e., 0.468, among four selected districts in the study area. The Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) of the selected district of western Maharashtra was 0.519 during the study period. Hence the overall position of western Maharashtra in SLSI was observed under the medium category. While Solapur district SEI was (0.429) fall under the low development category, to bridge the social inequality, the districts planning commission may adopt policies related to spreading of quality education, better health services, and adequate rural infrastructure for socio-economic development of the region. As per as the Sustainable Livelihood Security Index (SLSI) is concerned Kolhapur, Sangli, and Solapur districts of western Maharashtra need to pay urgent attention to better performance in sustainability. Novelty: This study is pioneering in area and attempt is made to the measurement of agricultural sustainability and rural livelihood based on different indicators and aspects i.e., ecological, economic, and social at the grassroots level and mostly drought-affected areas in the western Maharashtra region.
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