Household Human Development Index among various Social Groups in Kashmir Valley: A Case of District Anantnag


Ab Hamid Mir
Syed Gulzar Ganai


Objectives: The present study is an attempt to construct and analyse the Human development among various socio-economic groups in district Anantnag of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: Based on primary survey during the time frame of 2018-19, the attainments of well-being for the construction of a household based human development index (HDIH ) across five social groups namely-Agricultural Labourers, Chopans (Shepherds), Fishermen Community, Gujjar and Bakerwals (Schedule Tribes) and Scavengers in the study area on a selected number of demographics, economic, social and environmental variables were taken into account. Ratio based analysis of various socio-economic variables have been used, whether there are any significant differences among the social groups across the selected indicators, ANOVA (F-test) was used. Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient were used to analyse the distribution of household’s income within the social groups. Besides this, Human Development Index, Social Parity Index, Gender Parity Index were constructed to trace the human development and related aspects among the social groups. Findings: The study revealed that HDIH is estimated to be 0.3768 for all social groups which indicates overall human development is low. HDIH based on assets shows variation across the social groups from 0.245 for Gujjar and Bakerwals to 0.485 for Scavengers. The Agricultural Labourers attained the highest level of human development among various social groups with an HDI value of 0.4556, whereas the lowest value is found among Gujjar and Bakerwals (0.2473). For Agricultural Labourers and Scavengers, relatively high urbanisation seems to be a contributing factor for their higher ranks in HDIH. The study further explored that the three indices, Health index, education index and Standard of Living Index among these social groups are positively correlated with each other but the overall degree of association is not high. Health index has comparatively high and significant correlation with asset index. However, the correlation between health index with education index and that of education index with standard of livings index is low but statistically significant.