Trends and challenges of rural-urban migration in Karnataka, India: An overview


Ganaraja K


Background: The problem of economic development in any country lies in the gradual reallocation of the labour force from the traditional agricultural sector to the growing modern-urban industrial sector. This process is considered to be socially beneficial, since labour will be shifted from low productivity, low income occupations and areas to high productivity, high income occupations and areas. Objectives: To analyse the trends in rural-urban migration in general and to explore the major challenges of rural-urban migration in Karnataka, India. Methodology: The present study is based on secondary data gathered from census reports, research journals, and newspapers and from the relevant websites. The study is geographically restricted to Karnataka state. The scope of the study is to analyse the trends in rural-urban migration and factors responsible for rural to urban migration. Findings: The rural-urban migration has a positive trend while urban-rural migration has a negative trend. It is mainly due to multiple infrastructural facilities developed in urban areas. Therefore, increased urbanisation is the major factor responsible for increased rural-urban migration. This results in several problems in urban areas across India such as lack of civic amenities, deteriorating environment, traffic congestion, regional disparities etc. Thus, along with urban areas, rural areas must also be supported by the government by introducing more sustainable and inclusive developmental programs in the rural areas as well. The present study also discusses on the trends in migration at the international, national and also at the state level. Novelty: This study highlights the recent trends in rural-urban migration at the inter district level as well as across administrative blocks of Karnataka state.